DFE report 'Gap year takers: uptake, trends and long term outcomes' - DFE-RR252, November 2012. See http://www.gapadvice.org/images/dfe_research_nov12.pdf
DEMOS report into volunteering - July 2011
Volunteer tourism: A global analysis
Tourism Research and Marketing
January 2008, ISBN: 978-90-75775-34-1
This report provides a first global overview of the rapidly growing volunteer tourism market, and analyses the motivations, behaviour and travel patterns of volunteers and the activities of the organisations providing volunteer travel experiences. Part of the recent growth in volunteer travel can be related to the diversification of volunteer experiences, which make a definition of this market more difficult. Although most volunteer tourism involves a combination of travel and voluntary work, new forms of experience are emerging which involve a combination of work and leisure, or making donations instead of working.
This increasing demand for volunteer experiences is being met by a growing number of volunteer service organisations, most of whom have their headquarters in the developed world. Over half of the organisations we identified are non-profit, but the number of commercial providers is rising rapidly. Their activities have a considerable impact on the countries served, not only in terms of the fees paid directly to them by participants, but also because the volunteer travellers spend much larger sums of money funding their total travel plans - an average of over $3000 a trip in 2007.
Based on our survey of over 300 volunteer tourism organisations worldwide, we estimate that overall the market has grown to a total of 1.6 million volunteer tourists a year, with a value of between £832m and £1.3bn ($1.7bn - $2.6bn). The most substantial growth in the sector has taken place since 1990. A survey of over 8500 young travellers in 2007 indicates that volunteers are more likely to be women than men, and 70% were aged between 20 and 25. The frequency of volunteer motivations among young people grew slightly between 2002 and 2007, in line with trends in volunteering in general. Motivations for travel tend to be a mixture of volunteering, exploring other cultures and work and study abroad. There also seems to be a significant element of ‘unorganised’ volunteer tourism, with many young people finding volunteer placements once they arrive at their destination rather than being placed or sent by a volunteer service organization.
The main destinations for volunteers are Latin America, Asia and Africa. Together these regions account for almost 90% of the locations offered by volunteer service organisations. This underlines the close link between levels of development and volunteering, with most flows of volunteers being from relatively rich to relatively poor regions. National Tourist Offices have slowly begun to realise that there is a ‘high spending’ tourist market that is attracted to volunteering, and they are beginning to introduce volunteering opportunities on their websites. There has also been a significant growth in the number of commercial organisations catering to the volunteer market, and these are beginning to compete with the traditional non-profit volunteer service organisations.
There are also emerging ethical concerns about the benefits of volunteer travel, with some groups suggesting that it can do more harm than good. This especially concerns the way in which the volunteer work can be misdirected and organised more for the benefit of the untrained traveller than the recipients of their efforts. One of the proposed solutions to this problem is to recruit more experienced and highly skilled volunteers who will have more to offer their hosts. This trend matches the growth in career gaps and sabbaticals among older volunteers, which is slowly giving the volunteer tourism market a more senior age profile. The growth in volunteer tourism has also produced a plethora of analyses, websites and industry events, which are slowly adding to our body of knowledge about this important social phenomenon.
2. WHAT IS VOLUNTEER TOURISM?
2.1. What is meant by 'volunteer'?
2.2. Defining and measuring civic service
2.3. Types of Volunteer Projects
2.4. Profit or non-profit
2.5. Fund raising
2.7. Government funding of projects
3. WHO ARE THE ORGANISATIONS AND COMPANIES INVOLVED?
4. FACTORS STIMULATING THE GROWTH OF VOLUNTEER TOURISM
4.1. Volunteer Motivation and Commitment
5. ETHICAL ISSUES IN VOLUNTEER TOURISM
5.1. Impact of volunteer tourism on local people
6. VOLUME AND VALUE OF VOLUNTEER TOURISM
6.1. Estimated volume of volunteer activity
6.2. Estimated market value
6.3. Charitable contributions
6.4. Government and government agency involvement
7. VOLUNTEER TOURISM MARKETS AND DESTINATIONS
7.1. Volunteer markets
7.2. Volunteer destinations
7.3. Volunteer Tourism - a global demand profile
7.4. Volunteer tourism and Tourism Boards
7.5 . Responding to crises
8. VOLUNTEER TOURISM ON THE WEB
8.1. Getting information
8.2. Voluntary Service supporting organisations
8.3. Volunteer Tourism Research
9. THE FUTURE OF VOLUNTEER TOURISM
I. LIST OF ORGANISATIONS
II. GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY AND SOURCES
Bebo, 19 August 2008 'Credit Crunch hits gap year travelers as trips shrink by half.'
The Abbey National 16 January 2008
Goodbye to the gapper?
Lara Lipsey, Tel: 020 7756 4209, Mobile: 07920 700 732
The Association of Graduate Recruiters (AGR), June 2007:
‘A gap year can cure your stroppy teenager’ (Dr Andrew King, University of Surrey, 12 April 2007.) Reported by Sarah Womack, Daily Telegraph, 10 Apr 07.
Academic research on relationships between parents of children who have taken a gap year and their offspring will be presented this week at the British Sociological Association's conference in London. Sociologist Andrew King, of the School of Human Sciences at the University of Surrey, said children grew more appreciative and closer to their parents if they took a gap year. "It's something of a stereotype to say that teenagers don't get on with their parents. A host of popular cultural portrayals of stroppy teenagers abound, from Harry Enfield's Kevin to Catherine Tate's Lauren.
"But what happens when those stroppy teenagers become adults? "For a number, an important outcome of their gap-year experiences has been the renegotiation of their relationships with their parents." He said the gap year was also beneficial to parents, who frequently acquired respect for teenagers who had gone abroad, particularly to inhospitable or potentially dangerous places and carried out voluntary work.
Gap years are booming. According to the Year Out Group, an association of gap-year providers, up to 200,000 Britons take time out each year, 130,000 of them school-leavers. Girls outnumber boys by a ratio of 60:40, with girls more likely to choose volunteering and boys most likely to go on courses and cultural exchanges. But many potential gappers don't take the plunge. STA Travel surveyed 14,000 young people and found that 73 per cent planned to take a gap year. Only a fifth of them will do it, according to Tammy Cohen, author of Amazing Gap Year Adventures. She said Prince William's voluntary work in South America had encouraged more gappers to do good works, however.
Mr King, who looked at the effects of gap years on 25 teenagers and their parents, said: "Teenagers on gap years are suddenly aware of the financial implications of what their parents have done to enable them to travel. "Some of them got very homesick and one said the only way she could cope was not to speak to her parents for up to three weeks at a time, she loved them so much.
"Another said: 'A massive bond occurred between me and my parents. It's not like we didn't get on but suddenly they were giving me respect and they changed from being parents to being friends." VSO, the international charity that recruits gappers to volunteer abroad, said: "Young people have often not had the chance to reflect on the challenges of life and how they have been sheltered from the harsh realities. They come back having seen the world in a different way."
'BSI 23 April 2007, Press Release. Safer adventure holidays and field trips for British abroad.'
See http://www.bsi-global.com/en/About-BSI/News-Room/BSI-News-Content/General/News-Content/ for more details.
'Workers ditch commuting for globetrotting', Direct Line research, Feb 2007.
= 1. Finance/ Insurance (40 per cent)
3. IT/ Telecommunications (36 per cent)
National average (26 per cent)
4. Medicine/ Health Services (25 per cent)
5. Education (24 per cent)
= 6. Travel/ Transport (22 per cent)
= 6. Construction (22 per cent)
8. Retail (14 per cent)
Carmel McCarthy / Direct Line Press Office
44,200,000 x 0.69 x 0.18 = 5,489,640
44,200,000 x 0.69 x 0.1 = 3,094,800
'YouGov poll, reported in The Evening Standard 9 November 2006
'Milkround research on 3 July 2006 on Gap Years' (Extract)
With a large number of our subscribers choosing to go on gap years, we decided to carry out a survey to ask them about their plans, and what they hoped to get out of it. We also surveyed candidates who had already been on gap years to ask them what the benefits had been for them; and asked candidates who were not going on a gap year, what the reason for their decision was.
As one would expect, we found enormous variety in terms of activities on gap years (although tending to fall into one of the categories of paid work, volunteering and travelling), and in terms of destinations (ranging from the UK to locations all over the world), and in the reasons why students and graduates chose to go on gap years, and the benefits which candidates felt they had gained from doing so.
Respondents were nearly unanimous however in citing their gap year as beneficial to their careers and to their personal development, and in hoping to gain professional and personal skills (or declaring that they had done, if they had been on a gap year in the past).
378 students and graduates answered the poll. In the first part of this report we cover the different activities and destinations of gappers; while in the second we look at the reasons for going and the benefits gained from gap year activities.
See http://www.milkround.com/s4/jobseekers/zones/gap%5Fyear/ for more details.
'The Chancellor's Pre-Budget Report, 5 December 2005
The Government is joining with seven of Britain's leading companies to launch the country's first national youth community service - with up to £100 million of initial finance, it will fund gap years volunteering in Britain and abroad for young people who could otherwise not afford this - and fund part time and full time community service in every constituency.
'Gap Year Travel', report from Mintel, July 2005 - http://www.mintel.com
A new age for gap year travel
Latest research from MINTEL's Travel and Tourism Analyst shows that older 'Career Gappers' and 'Denture Venturers' are giving students a run for their money in the multi-billion pound global gap year market. Having only really taken off in the early 1990s, the global gap year market is now worth a substantial £5 billion, accounting for between 1 and 1.5 million trips a year. What is more, by 2010, an estimated 2 million gap year trips will be made by travellers from around the world, with total expenditure more than doubling to a staggering £11 billion. "The growing popularity of gap year travel is showing no signs of abating. But MINTEL believes that it will be the increasing number of older adults such as 'Career Gappers', taking a break from work or 'Denture Venturers' going on pre-retirement travels, who will in fact boost the market in the future," comments Jessica Rawlinson, Publishing Manager, International Travel and Tourism at MINTEL.
"Here at gapyear.com we have seen a similar shift in the age of gap year travellers. Changing work patterns, from life-long to more 'portfolio' careers, has enabled a wider number of people to take career breaks between jobs. Employers today are also undoubtedly becoming increasingly aware of the value of longer periods of international travel. As a result, many 25 - 35 year olds are temporarily opting out of working life before they settle into another job, buy a house or perhaps even start a family. In addition, rising numbers of older people in the population of developed countries, together with the increased health and wealth of this age group, has helped to spawn pre-retirement gap travellers. Indeed an ever increasing number of 50 - 55 year olds are 'ski-ing' - spending the kids inheritance - and becoming so-called 'Denture Venturers'," comments Tom Griffiths, founder of gapyear.com.
British gappers show the world the way:
Remarkably, UK gappers account for half of all expenditure within this booming sector. Today, the British gap year travel market comprises approximately 1% of all UK outbound trips and around 10% of outbound travel expenditure. In total, the UK market for 18-24-year-old travellers is estimated to be around 200,000. But this market is set to grow; with more young people being involved in tertiary education and increasing numbers of students each year opting to take a year out. Amazingly however, there are now almost as many British pre-retirement gappers as pre-university gappers.
Gap year travel: A £5000 spending spree:
Whilst gap travellers do not spend huge amounts on a day to day basis, the long duration of their trips means that total expenditure is usually well above the average for overseas travel. Today, the average gap year traveller spends around £4,800, but the most extravagant group is the 'Career Gappers', as they can shell out almost double this (£9,000) on their gap year. "As 'Career Gappers' have already spent several years working, they usually have greater disposable income to raise the funds for volunteering, courses or expeditions than pre-university gappers. What is more, as volunteers, they bring more experience than students who are travelling immediately after they leave school. And while they often do not yet have too many financial and personal responsibilities, they can afford to spend more than pre-retirement gappers," explains Jessica Rawlinson. On a positive note, the money spent on these travels is invaluable for local economies. Gap travellers tend to stay in locally-run accommodation and buy locally-produced goods and so a greater percentage of each pound, dollar, or whatever currency spent remains in the country visited.
Please note that all information contained in this website article is
owned exclusively by Mintel and governed by Mintel's terms and
conditions. Use of any information for any published or electronic
media, in whole or in part, is prohibited without the express written or
verbal permission of Mintel's PR team.
Should you have any questions regarding the uses of these materials or
related copyright issues, or you would like to purchase the whole
report, please contact the Emily Measor on 0207 606 6000.
The Russell Commission, March 2005.
* The need to show a clear link to UK volunteering
* The requirement to be responsive directly to real community needs
* To be accessible to all
The 'Review of Gap Year Provision' report, published 29 July 2004.
Commissioned by the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) on gap years, it was carried out by Dr Andrew Jones from Birkbeck College, University of London. The main issues addressed were:
* defining what a gap year is
* national levels of participation
* the benefits and disadvantages of undertaking different kinds of activities on a gap year
* a survey of the organisations that provide gap year opportunities
* existing standards and approaches to quality assurance in gap year provision.
IDS HR Studies Update 776, June 2004.http://www.incomesdata.co.uk/studies/careerbreaks.htm
Career breaks and sabbaticals - gap years.
'Looks at the growing demand from employees for career breaks.
Shows how employers consider these requests.
Discusses the impact on pensions and other employee benefits.
Looks at arrangements for staying in touch with employees on career breaks.
Describes the typical terms on which they eventually return to their job.
Includes details of sabbatical and career break schemes in 19 organisations.
Many employees now want the flexibility to take an extended period away from work to travel abroad, study, look after children or older relatives, or simply to recharge their batteries. Employers are increasingly accommodating such requests by offering career breaks or sabbaticals.
Career break schemes give employers the discretion to retain valued employees who want to take a significant amount of time, perhaps years, away from work to focus on these other aspects of their lives. Employees are not paid during this time, but have the right to return to work or at least to apply for re-engagement on favourable terms.
Sabbaticals are much rarer and are normally offered for shorter periods, typically up to three months, as a reward for continuous service with the employer. Employees can choose what to do with the time, and there tend to be very few restrictions. Individuals remain employed, sometimes on full pay, and return automatically to their job at the end of the sabbatical.
This in-depth article is the lead feature article in the June 2004 IDS HR Studies Update.'